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22 Different Types of Lathe Machine Operations
In this article, you will learn about what are the different types of lathe machine operations performed on the lathe machine.
Lathe machine performs the different operations such as turning, facing, taper turning, knurling, grooving, parting off, electric turning, thread cutting, reaming etc.
Let’s discuss all lathe machine operations one by one as follows.
To perform different lathe machine operations on a lathe, the workpiece may be supported and driven by any one of the following methods:
The lathe machine operations are classified into three main categories.
Lathe machine operations done either by holding the workpiece between centres or by a chuck are:
Lathe machine operations which are performed by holding the work by a chuck or a faceplate or an angle plate are:
The operation which is performed by using special attachments are:
The difference between Management Contracting and Constructi...
Management contracting is appropriate for large – scale projects requiring an early start on site. The design is undertaken on behalf of the employer and this procurement route is ideal where work needs to be started before the design on the project is completed. It therefore is of great assistance where the period available up to completion is restricted. This procurement route is also suitable for projects where the design is sophisticated or innovative, requiring proprietary systems or components designed by specialists.
The management contractor does not carry out any construction work, but manages the project on behalf of the client. It is a cost – reimbursable form of contract, with the management contractor being paid a fee. All the work is undertaken by subcontractors, referred to as works contractors, in distinct works packages, employed by the management contractor. A cost plan is produced at an early stage based upon estimates of the works packages, plus preliminaries and the management contractor ’ s fee.
The employer appoints the architect or contract administrator, CDM co – ordinator, quantity surveyor and any other consultant who may be required. There are two distinct time periods involved. During the first period, which is the preconstruction period, the management contractor should be appointed as early as possible to enable it to have an input into such matters as the design of the project, in particular the buildability aspect; health and safety matters; preparation of the budgets for works packages; and the programme. The fee to be paid to the management contractor is usually agreed at the outset of the preconstruction period.
During the construction period the works packages are put together by the management contractor in conjunction with the employer ’ s professional team. The management contractor will be required to manage, organise and supervise the works contractors, to ensure that the work is carried out in accordance with the requirements of the contract and completed on time.
The management contractor is paid the final cost of all the works packages plus any preliminaries and the fee. The fee is usually a lump sum, as paying the fee as a percentage of the total of the works package is not conducive to keeping the works package costs to a minimum.
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The most commonly used standard form of management contract is the JCT Management Building Contract. It is an important concept of this management contract that the consequences of any default on the part of any works contractor do not fall on the management contractor. The management contractor is required to ensure that the work is carried out without defects and on time. However, this requirement does not bite if the only reason for a breach of the obligation is a breach of the works contract by a works contractor. There is no such comfort offered to the management contractor by the Engineering and Construction Contract (NEC 3) Option F Management Contract, which makes it clear that the management contractor is responsible for all work undertaken by the subcontractors.
This type of procurement method is generally regarded as low financial risk from the management contractor ’ s point of view. The client, however, is at greater risk financially than would be the case with a traditional procurement route, where the contractor works for a pre – determined lump sum. Employers can be caught out where the contract runs over a long period and unexpected inflation takes place, which results in the final cost of the project exceeding the cost plan.
Construction management offers an alternative to management contracting and in like manner is suitable for large projects where an early start on site is required. The major difference between construction management and management contracting is that the construction manager acts solely as a manager and is not in contract with the trade contractors, who undertake all of the work.
An additional difference between management contracting and construction management is that the construction manager is a first appointment and will be responsible for selecting the design team, even if they are in contract with the employer.
The employer enters into separate trade contracts with each of the trade contractors who will be carrying out the work. The JCT has produced a standard Construction
Management Appointment and a standard Construction Management Trade Contract for use on construction management projects.
The construction manager acts as an agent on behalf of the employer and manages the trade contractors ’ work and also the design. It is usually advisable for the employer to select and appoint its own quantity surveyor, who will act independently from the construction manager, to ensure that impartial cost advice is being provided.
In like manner to the management contract, the construction management contract is a cost – reimbursable contract, with the construction manager being paid a fee.
The downside of this procurement route is that, if there is a serious dispute between the construction manager and a trade contractor which cannot be amicably resolved, any formal proceeding must be commenced by the employer against the trade contractor.
In like manner to management contracting, construction management is low financial risk from the construction management constructor ’ s point of view. The financial risk for the employer arising from the two procurement routes is also the same.
Advantages and disadvantages of Public Address (PA) system
What is Radiator? It’s Working Principle and Types of Radi...
Today we’ll discuss the cooling system of your vehicle and how it works, the cooling system in your vehicle consists of the Water pump, Radiator, Cooling fans as well as Thermostat. In this article, we’ll discuss Radiators, Radiator types and Radiator working.
The radiators are heat exchangers used to transfer thermal energy from one medium to another for the purpose of cooling and heating.
A radiator is a device consisting of a large amount of cooling surface which contains large amounts of air so that it spreads through the water to cool efficiently.
The radiator has a wide range of application in automobile industries there are mainly used to cool the internal combustion engine in the automobile. They also used in piston-engined aircraft, Railway, locomotives, motorcycles, stationary generating plants and other places where such engines are used.
Radiators are classified according to the direction of the water flow through them. In some, the water flows from top to bottom-down flow type radiator. In other, the water flows horizontally from an input tank on one side to another tank on the other side-cross flow type radiator.
Radiators are usually made of copper and brass because of their high heat conductivity. The various sections of the radiators are almost completely joined by soldering.
There are two basic types of radiator
In tubular type core, the upper and lower tanks are connected by a series of tubes through which water passes. Fins are placed around the tubes to improve heat transfer. Air passes around the outside of the tubes, between the fins, absorbing heat from the water in passing.
In a tubular radiator, because the water passes through all the tubes, if one tube becomes clogged, the cooling effect of the entire tube is lost. In a cellular. radiator, the clogging of any passage results in a loss but of a small part of the total cooling surface.
In cellular type core, air passes through the tubes and the water flows in the spaces between them.
The core is composed of a large number of individual air cells which are surrounded by water. Because of its appearance, the cellular type usually is known as a honeycomb radiator, especially when the cells in front are hexagonal in form.
In a cellular. radiator, the clogging of any passage results in a loss but of a small part of the total cooling surface.
It consists of an upper tank and a lower tank and between them a core.
Radiator working principle:
The radiator is a pretty simple device. Nowadays most modern cars use aluminium radiator. Radiators usually have a tank on each side, and inside the tank is a transmission cooler.
n this type of radiator, you’re going to have an aluminium mesh. In this aluminium device, It consists of two ports inlet an outlet. Inside the radiator, there are tubes that mounted in a parallel arrangement. And the aluminium fins are attached to all of the tubes.
The Radiator working is very simple. In radiator, the coolant flows from the inlet to the outlet through many tubes mounted in a parallel arrangement.
The hot water enters the radiator through the inlet port. And a fan is attached on behind the radiator to cool down the hot water in the tubes. The fan blows the air and cools down the water. So the water is going to come out cooler than it entered before and then go back to the engine.
Now how it does that air is going to be feeding through this.
The aluminium fins are attached to the tubes this called tubulator. Now the tubes are filled with hot coolant coming from the engine. So they’re going to give off heat to this aluminium coat by passing air through the fan, it cools the aluminium coat. If the fluid flowed very smoothly through the tubes, only the fluid actually touching the tubes would be cooled directly. Now it is going to send out to the cooler and then go back to the engine.
Comparison between variable Circuit Breaker (ACB, OCB, MOCB,...
ACB (Air circuit breaker)
There are mainly two types of ACB are available.
Some specific advantages:
Some specific disadvantages:
Uses of Air Circuit Breaker:
It is used for protection of plants
It is used for common protection of electrical machines
It used for protection of transformers, capacitors and generators.
Air circuit breaker is also used in Electricity sharing system and NGD about 15kV
Also used in Low as well as High voltage and Currents applications.
Vacuum Circuit Breaker or VCB
Advantages of VCB
Disadvantages of VCB
SF6 Circuit Breaker
SF6 Circuit Breakers Advantages:
SF6 Circuit Breaker Diadvantages:
Oil Circuit Breaker (OCB)
Advantages of Oil Circuit Breaker (OCB) As an Arc extinguishing medium oil has the following advantages: 1. Oil produces hydrogen during arching. The hydrogen helps extinguish the arc. 2. The oil provides insulation for the live exposed contacts from the earthed portions of the container 3. Oil provides insulation between the contacts after the arc has been extinguished
Disadvantages of Oil Circuit Breaker (OCB) 1. Oil is inflammable and may cause fire hazards. When a defective circuit breaker fails under pressure, it may cause an explosion 2. The hydrogen generated during arcing, when combined with air, may form an explosive mixture 3. During arcing, oil decomposes and becomes polluted by carbon particles, which reduces its dielectric strength. Hence, it requires periodic maintenance and replacement.
Solex Carburettor: Its Types and Working Principle
Solex is a French manufacturer of carburettors and the powered bicycle VéloSoleX. Solex carburettor is used in may European automobile industries. Such big industries as Rolls-Royce, Volkswagen and Mercedes Benz.
Solex carburettors are invented by Marcel Mennesson and Maurice Goudard founder of Solex company. Solex carburettors widely used by many European makers also used in passenger cars and commercial vehicles.
As we already know the function of carburetor:
Solex carburettor is a down draught type carburettor. It consists of the devices for starting, idling normal running and acceleration. These are described in brief as follows.
The figure shows a starting device for Solex carburettor. It consists of a starter valve in the form of a flat disc having holes of different sizes.
These holes connect the starter jet and petrol jet sides to the passage which opens into the air horn below the throttle valve. The starter lever is operated by the driver from the dashboard, which adjusts the position of the starter valve so that either bigger or small holes come opposite the passage.
At the time of starting, bigger holes connect the passage so that more fuel may go to the engine.
The throttle valve is closed, the whole of engine suction is applied to the starting passage 1. The petrol from the float chamber passage through the starter petrol jet and rises into passage 2, it comes out and mixes with the air entering through the air jet. This air-fuel mixture is rich enough for starting for the engine.
After the engine has started, the starter lever is taken to the 2nd position. So that smaller holes connect the passage reducing the amount of petrol. In this position, the throttle valve is also partly open so that the petrol is also coming from the main jet.
The reduced mixture supply from the starter system in this situation is however sufficient to keep the engine running. When the engine reaches the normal temperature, the starter is taken to “off” position.
Ballistic particle manufacturing (BPM)
The BPM personal modeler came with all hardware and software enclosed in one compact unit.
The BPM is controlled by a DOS based 486 powered PC which is housed within the unit.
The BPM utilized ink jet or droplet based manufacturing techniques, where it builds the models by firing micro-droplets of molten wax material from a moving nozzle or jet onto a stationary platform, the platform then lowers and the process is repeated for each layer of the model.
The part is built as a hollow shell.
The parts can be scaled, rotated, or translated to a desired orientation. This is performed on a 5 axis workstation
BPM parts are not intended to be finished, however they may be painted.
BPM employs a technology called digital Microsynthesis.
1.) In the first step of the process, molten plastic is fed to a piezoelectic jetting mechanism, almost like those of inkjet printers.
2.) Next a multi-axis controlled NC (Numerical Control) system shoots tiny droplets of material onto the target, using the jetting mechanism.
3.) Last, small droplets freeze upon contact with the surface, forming the surface particle by particle.
Requires minimal post-processing.
Minimal power consumption.
Low cost of cost and materials.
Ability to perform in microgravity and vacuum environments.
BPM has no size constraints.
The process allows use of virtually any thermoplastic. Because of this, there are no heath hazards involved.
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